This synthesis focuses on estimates of biodiversity change as projected for the 21st century by models or
extrapolations based on experiments and observed trends. The term biodiversity is used in a broad
sense as it is defined in the Convention on Biological Diversity to mean the abundance and distributions
of and interactions between genotypes, species, communities, ecosystems and biomes. This synthesis
pays particular attention to the interactions between biodiversity and ecosystem services and to
The research agreement signed on 19th December 2005 by the Institute of Research for Development (IRD), the University Paul Sabatier (Toulouse III) and Nantes University, the Pharmacochemical laboratories of Natural Substances and Pharmacophores Redox (UMR 1165) and the Centre of Maritime and Ocean Law (EA 1165, CDMO) led to the international research program Coral Reef Initiatives for the Pacific (CRISP).
This introduction provides an overview and commentary on the papers in a special issue of PARKS, which is devoted
to the impact and implications of COVID-19 on the world’s protected and conserved areas. It describes how 11 peerreviewed
papers and 14 essays have brought together the knowledge and findings of numerous experts from all parts
of the world, supported by several wide-ranging surveys. The resulting global synthesis of experience answers some
key questions: why did the pandemic occur? what has it meant for protected and conserved areas, and the people
With increasing globalization of markets, rising environmental awareness, and attention from international conventions and agreements, the vast majority of countries are looking into managing their forests more sustainably. The main limitation appears to be lack of funding for improving forest management. Traditional sources include the government, targeted investments from the private sector, international donor support, and contributions in kind from rural communities. But these are grossly inadequate, and additional finances are required.